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Broken bones and injury

  • Infection
  • Ankle fractures
  • Bleeding
  • Pain
  • Blood in your leg
  • Damage to blood vessels, tendons or nerves
  • Difficulty with bone healing
  • Arthritis
  • Achilles tendon rupture
  • Pain from plates and screws that are used to fix the fracture


Postsurgical treatment may include:

  • rehab
  • home exercises
  • supports


Ankle Fractures in Children


  • Twisting force during sports or playing when the lower leg or foot twists unexpectedly


  • Salter-Harris I and II fractures
  • Salter-Harris III fractures
  • Salter-Harris IV fractures
  • Salter-Harris V fractures
  • Distal Fibular fractures
  • Special Distal
  • Tibial fractures
  • Tillaux Fractures


Calcaneus (heel bone)


  • usually high energy forces (fall from height or motor vehicle collision)
  • types:
  • stable
  • displaced
  • open
  • closed
  • comminuted

Non-surgical treatment can include:

  • casting
  • immobilization (surgical treatment may be a consideration) 

Surgical procedures may include:

  • open reduction internal fixation
  • percutaneous screw fixation

Postsurgical care will include:

  • early motion
  • physical medicine modalities
  • weight- bearing

Postsurgical complications can include:

  • small or temporary areas of delayed wound healing
  • nerve irritation around the incision
  • tendon irritation caused by screws
  • joint stiffness
  • chronic pain
  • blood clots
  • failure of the wound to heal
  • infection
  • collapse of bone Arthritis – this can occur without or with surgery


Lawn Mower Injuries

Cuts Treatment may need cleaning and bandaging more serious cuts, may require irrigating more serious cuts may require surgery to ensure proper healing

Burns Treatment severe burns may require surgery and treatment from plastic surgery more than one surgical procedure may be necessary to avoid infection

Broken bones (fractures)

  • Treatment Casting or splinting 
  • Open fractures need to be cleaned before fixing the fracture
  • Growth plate fractures can be treated with immobilization, but surgery may be indicated


  • Treatment Reattachment may be indicated if body part has not been detached for too long
  • Severe Injuries Treatment may require reconstructive surgery to improve function and appearance.
  • Complications Infection Loss of sensation or strength Adhesions Slow fracture healing Lack of fracture healing Healing with bones in poor position.
  • Rehabilitation Physical medicine modalities Strategies to live with the injury Prosthesis Assistive devices


Lisfranc (midfoot) injuries - Results if the mid foot is broken or supporting ligaments are torn

  • Is a severe injury, often mistaken for a simple sprain
  • Low energy injury
  • stumbling over the top of the foot flexed downwards

Non-surgical treatment can include: non-weight bearing cast for 6 weeks with slow progression to weight bearing in a removable cast boot or orthotic

Surgical treatment: is recommended in injuries with fracture or abnormal position of the joints

  • Internal fixation
  • Fusion
  • Postsurgical treatment
  • non-weight bearing for 6-8 weeks in cast or cast boot
  • weight bearing is started when x-rays show good alignment after 6-8 week period


  • some athletes may never return to pre-injury level, despite good surgical results
  • arthritis may occur and lead to chronic pain


Pilon Fractures


  • high energy impact injury crushing the bones of the ankle joint
  • fall from height
  • motor vehicle/motorcycle collisions
  • skiing

Non-surgical treatment:

  • splints and casts
  • monitoring during the healing stages
  • recovery may take as long as 12 weeks

Surgical treatment:

  • external fixation may be necessary if there is a fibular fracture
  • this is to protect the fracture and skin
  • once skin is healed, the surgery to fix the tibia is performed.

Post-surgical treatment:

  • begins when you are allowed to start moving the ankle
  • post surgical complications
  • stiffness
  • ankle arthritis
  • infection
  • bone healing problems
  • painful plates and screws
  • wound healing problems
  • blood vessel or nerve damage


Stress Fractures of the foot and ankle

  • small crack in a bone, usually developed from high impact sports like distance running or basketball
  • most common in second and third metatarsals of the foot


  • Conditioning – doing too much too soon
  • Equipment and environment
  • Technique
  • Bone Insufficiency
    • Osteoporosis
    • Medical problems
    • Certain medications
    • Female athletes
      • eating disorders, abnormal menstrual cycle and osteoporosis 


  • First aid
  • Rest
  • Protective foot wear
  • Casts
  • Surgical Treatment


Talus Fractures


  • motor vehicle collisions
  • fall from heights
  • snow boarding


  • immediate treatment is to apply splint, elevation and ice
  • can be treated without surgery, if bones are in good aligment Cast for 6-8 weeks
  • most require surgery to minimize later complications Use of screws Cast for 6-8 weeks. Non weight bearing for up to 3 months J. Toe and Forefoot Fractures


Toe and Forefoot Fractures


  • Stress fractures
  • Jones fracture
  • Avulsion fracture
  • Dancer’s fracture 


  • dropping object on the foot (trauma)
  • twisting injury


  • see doctor as soon as possible
  • keep weight off leg and apply ice to reduce swelling
  • NSAIDs to relieve pain
  • wear wider shoe with stiff sole
  • avoid activity that caused the injury for 3-4 weeks
  •  buddy taping
    • if you have a broken toe
  • short-leg walking cast, brace or rigid flat-bottom shoe
  • surgery is rarely needed


Turf Toe - sprain of the main joint of the big toe

  • any sport or activity that causes injury of any soft tissue structure on the bottom of the big toe (plantar complex)


Grade 1:

  •  plantar complex has been stretched causing pin-point tenderness and slight swelling

Grade 2:

  •  partial tearing of the plantar complex causes more widespread tenderness, moderate swelling, and bruising. Movement of the toe is limited and painful

Grade 3:

  •  plantar complex is completely torn causing severe tenderness, severe swelling, and bruising. Movement is difficult and painful


  •  rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE).
  •  NSAIDs – can help with symptom relief - see doctor if symptoms persist

 Non-surgical treatment:

Grade 1:

  • RICE, NSAIDs, buddy taping

Grade 2:

  •  immobilization, walking boot may be indicated, for up to one week; after this follow Grade 1 protocol

Grade 3:

are more severe and are most often treated with immobilization for several weeks, walking boot or cast that keeps big toe in down position. As healing takes place Step down to Grade 2 and then to Grade 1

  • Physical medicine modalities may be helpful as soon as tolerated
  • exercises to stretch and strengthen the big toe
  • early joint movement is essential for reducing or preventing stiffness

Surgical treatment:

  • not often indicated
  • if symptoms persist or level of athletic ability is affected, surgery may be an option
  • indicated for severe tear, fracture of sesamoid, vertical instability, loose bony chip in the joint, damage to the cartilage of the joint or new or worsening bunion


Sprains, Strains and other injuries - Sprained ankle - very common injury


Grade 1:

slight stretching and some damage to the fibers of the ligament


  • weight bearing as tolerated
  • sometric exercises  
  • full range of motion exercises as tolerated

Grade 2:

complete tears of some but not all fibers in the ligament


  •  immobilization with air splint
  •  physical medicine with range of motion exercises
  • stretching and strengthening

Grade 3:

complete tear/rupture of ligament


  • immobilization  treatment similar to Grade 2
  •  possible surgical correction


  • as above
  • three phases of recovery

Phase 1 – includes rest, protecting the ankle and reducing swelling - one week

Phase 2 – includes restoring range of motion, strength and flexibility - one to two weeks

Phase 3 – include gradually returning to activities that do not require

  • turning or twisting the ankle and doing maintenance exercises. Followed later by activities that require sharp, sudden movements (cutting activities)
  • medications
  • surgical
  • reserved for injuries that fail conservative treaments
  • arthroscopy
  • reconstruction
  • post surgical physical medicine will be necessary to restore strength and range of motion
  • this can take weeks to several months
  • possible complications can include
  • abnormal proprioception
  • imbalance and muscle weakness
  • re-injury
  • if chronic situation, instability and chronic pain M. Diseases and Syndromes


Adult Flatfoot


  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
    • most common cause
  • Arthritis
  • Injury
    • Lisfranc (midfoot injury)
  • Diabetic Collapse (Charcot Foot)


Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle


  1. Osteoarthritis
    • degenerative wear and tear
    • aging, obesity and family history
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • cause is unknown
    • ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, or forefoot locations
    • non-surgical treatments as below
    • fusion of the affected joints is most common surgical treatment
  3. Post-Traumatic Arthritis
    • fractures and dislocations
    • Non-surgical treatment
      • Pain relievers
      • Shoe inserts – pads or arch supports
      • Custom made shoe
      • Ankle-foot orthosis (ASO)
      • Brace or cane
      • Physical medicine modalities and exercise
      • Weight control or nutritional supplements
      • Medications or injections
        • - Surgical Treatment – if failure of conservative treament
          1. Arthroscopic debridement
          2. Arthrodesis or Tusion
          3. Arthroplasty or Joint replacement
          4. Care of diabetic foot:
            • - never walk barefoot
            • - wash every day with soap and water
            • - use lotion to keep skin soft
            • - trim toenails straight across. If you have ingrown nails, see your doctor
            • - always keep feet warm and do not let feet get wet
            • - do not smoke
            • - do not use drugstore medications, heating pads, sharp instruments or antiseptic solutions on your feet.
            • - do not put feet in front of fireplace or on radiators
            • - choose shoes carefully, tight fitting shoe can cause ulcers and possibly to infection
            • - orthotics may be beneficial in lessening pressure on the foot
  4. Clubfoot
    • unknown cause
    • non-surgical treatment
    • stretching and casting (Ponseti method)
    • surgical treatment
    • usually done at 9-12 months of age
    • casting to be done after surgery while healing takes place
  5. Diabetic (Charcot) Foot
    • combination of bone disintegration and trauma warps and deforms the foot.
    • non-surgical treatment Casting Custom shoes
    • Surgical treatment Reserved for deformities that can cause ulcers If protective shoewear is ineffective Unstable fractures Dislocations
  6. Flexible Flatfoot in Children
    • when arch disappears or shrinks upon standing
    • non-surgical treatment (if pain)
    • stretching exercises for the heel cord
    • surgical treatment
    • may be necessary for persistent pain
    • if rigid and doesn’t correct with growth
  7. Plantar Fasciitis and Bone Spurs
    • most common pain on the bottom of the heel (plantar fasciitis)
    • non-surgical treatment – more than 90% improve within 10 months of starting treatment
    • rest
    • ice
    • NSAIDs
    • exercise – calf stretch, plantar fascia stretch
    • cortisone injection
    • supportive shoes and orthotics
    • night splints
    • physical medicine modalities
    • extracorporeal shockwave therapy
    • surgical treatment – only after 12 months of nonsurgical treatment
    • gastrocnemius recession
    • plantar fascia release
    • complications – most common is incomplete pain relief
  8. Sesamoiditis
    • irritation of bones that are connected to tendons or embedded in muscle
    • non-surgical treatment
    • stop the activity causing pain
    • take NSAIDs for pain relief
    • rest and ice the area
    • use cushioning pads
    • gradual return to activity
    • taping
    • injection
    • removable short leg brace
    • fracture of the sesamoid
    • stiff-soled shoe or short, leg-fracture brace
    • taping
    • cushion pad to the area as the fracture heals
    • pain relievers
  9. Verticle Talus
    • rare deformity diagnosed at birth
    • one cause of flatfoot in newborn
    • non-surgical treatment
    • series of stretching and casting
    • surgical treatment
    • if conservative treatment unsuccessful
    • recommended at 9-12 months old
    • cast applied after surgery
    • brace or special shoe may be required to prevent return of deformity
  10. Achilles Tendinitis
    • inflammation of the tendon on the back of the leg, near the heel


  1. noninsertional Achilles tendinitis
  2. insertional Achilles tendinitis
    • non-surgical treatment
      • rest
      • ice
      • NSAIDs
      • Exercise – calf stretch
      • physical medicine modalitie
      • eccentric strengthening
      • single/bilateral heel drop
      • cortisone injections
      • supportive shoes and orthotics
      • extracorporeal shockwave therapy
    • surgical treatment
      • gastrocnemius recession
      • debridement and repair
      • debridement with tendon transfer
      • post surgical treatment can take up to 12 months
    • complications
      • moderate to severe pain after surgery
      • wound infection
  3. Heel Pain
    • may have many causes
    • stone bruise
    • plantar fasciitis
    • heel spur
  4. Toes
    • bunions
    • claw toe
    • corns
    • hammer toe
    • ingrown toenail
    • intoeing
    • Morton’s neuroma
    • stiff big toe (hallux rigidus) 

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Posture and Neck Pain

Chronic neck pain is a miserable experience. Although some cases of neck pain are caused by an injury, many are simply due to poor posture. Poor posture stresses the muscles of the neck and can cause muscle spasms, stiffness and pain. Over time, the stresses of poor posture on the neck can cause degenerative diseases to develop in the discs and bones of the neck. Forward head A very commonly seen posture that puts a lot of strain on the neck is the forward head. The individual habitually thrusts the head forward, carrying it out in front of the shoulders. In this position, the weight of the head is constantly pulling on the spine and the shoulders. Sitting for hours hunched over a desk or a computer is a common cause of forward head. Many people with this habitual forward head carriage suffer from sore shoulders as well as a sore neck. Over time, the vertebrae at the base of the neck (C5 and C6) can develop painful degenerative conditions due to the constant weight of the head pulling on them in the forward head posture. Correct posture A correct posture is one that keeps the spine in alignment. Some people call it a neutral or balanced posture. One exercise to encourage a neutral posture is to focus on opening the chest wide as you try to squeeze your shoulder blades together. Once your chest is open, bring your head into alignment. Think of a string pulling up the top of your head and lengthening the neck. When you do this, your chin will tuck in and your head will naturally shift into proper alignment with your spine. Do the open chest/ string exercise multiple times a day. Other exercises to build better posture are head nods and chin tucks. To do a head nod, slowly nod your head slightly up and down without moving your neck. To do chin tucks, tip your nose down toward the ground and move the top of your head backwards. Repeat head nods and chin tucks several times a day. These exercises strengthen the muscles on the front of the neck. Individuals with habitual forward head posture usually have very weak muscles in the front of the neck. If you've worked hard at correcting your posture and you are still suffering from neck pain, why not give us a call?

Note: The information on this Web site is provided as general health guidelines and may not be applicable to your particular health condition. Your individual health status and any required medical treatments can only be properly addressed by a professional healthcare provider of your choice. Remember: There is no adequate substitution for a personal consultation with your physician. Neither BPF Specialty Hospital, or any of their affiliates, nor any contributors shall have any liability for the content or any errors or omissions in the information provided by this Web site.