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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Anesthesiology - specialty of medicine that deals with the administration of medicine to prevent or control pain during and after surgical procedures

Arthrodesis - surgical procedure in which bones are fused together. Also known as fusion.

Arthroscopy - surgical procedure in which the interior of a joint is examined using a type of endoscope.

Arthroplasty - surgical repair of a diseased joint. This term is used synonymously with total joint replacement procedures.

Bariatrics - specialty of medicine that deals with obesity, inclusive of prevention and treatments for.

Debridement - surgical procedure that removes dead, damaged, dying, or infected tissue.

Discectomy - surgical procedure to remove portion of a herniated or bulging disc that is compressing a nerve or spinal cord.

DVT (deep vein thrombosis) - is a blood clot that forms in a vein, typically in the leg. This is more common after surgery due to the fact that patients don not walk as much as normal after surgery and veins can be damaged during surgery.

Elective Surgery - a surgical procedure that the patient chooses to have.

Facet thermal ablation – surgical procedure to debride the facet joint and anesthetize the nerve. Also known as rhizotomy.

Fellowship Training - additional education after completion of a residency training. After medical school residency training begins and is five or more years of on-the-job training.

Foraminotomy – surgical procedure to relieve pressure on nerves compressed by the intervertebral foramen.

Gynecology - specialty of medicine that deals with the female reproductive system.

Hemorrhage - bleeding of any amount.

Inpatient Surgery - surgery that is performed where the patient stays overnight or longer after the surgery is completed for observation.

Kyphoplasty - also known as balloon kyphoplasty; similar to vertebroplasty; a balloon type device is inserted to the bone to make space and then the space is filled with bonelike cement; may be used on patients with compression fractures in the spine; can potentially restore bone height and correct deformity.

Lap Band - the brand name for gastric banding device used in weight loss surgery. This is used to limit the amount of food that can be eaten.

Laparoscopic Surgery - a surgical technique that can be performed without a long traditional incision. Also known as minimally invasive surgery.

Laminotomy - surgical procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal cord compressed by spinal stenosis.

Malabsorptive Surgeries - type of weight loss surgery that decreases the amount of nutrition the body is able to absorb from the intestinal tract. Also known as – gastric bypass surgery, roux en y surgery, gastric division surgeries and duodenal switch surgery.

Microsurgery - term used for surgery that requires a microscope to be able to visualize small structures during surgery.

Minimally Invasive Surgery - surgical technique that is less traumatic to the body that traditional surgical techniques. See also Laparoscopic surgery.

MRI - diagnostic test that uses magnetic fields to produce an image of the body.

Necrosis - dead tissue, caused by lack of blood and oxygen to the tissue. This needs to be surgically removed.

Neurosurgery - surgical specialty that deals with the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord.

Necrosis - dead tissue, caused by lack of blood and oxygen to the tissue. This needs to be surgically removed.

Obstetrics - specialty of medicine that deals with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth and immediately after childbirth.

Oncology - specialty of medicine that deals with treating cancer.

Open Surgery - traditional type of surgery where a long incision is made for the surgeon to view and insert instruments.

Orthopedic Surgery - specialty of medicine that involves the skeletal system, including joints, bones, ligaments and tendons.

Otolaryngology (ENT) - specialty of medicine that involves treatment of diseases and problems of the ears, nose, throat and neck problems that are not spinal in nature

Osteotomy - surgical division or sectioning of the bone to correct malalignment of a joint or bone

Outpatient Surgery - surgical procedure where the patient is performed and the patient is allowed to go home the same day.

Palliative Care - care that is designed to help reduce severity of patient symptoms or slow the progress of the disease, inclusive of pain control, symptom relief and emotional support.

Perioperative - period of time that last from the decision to have surgery, surgery itself and until recovery from surgery is complete.

Plastic, Reconstructive and Cosmetic Surgery – specialty of medicine that is concerned with enhancing the physical appearance of the body.

Podiatry - treatment of disorders of the foot and ankle.

Podiatrist - doctor of podiatric medicine; trained professional that can perform treatments and surgeries on the foot and ankle.

Post Operative - the time period following a surgical procedure.

Preoperative - the time period between the decision to have surgery and the beginning of the surgical procedure.

Referred Pain - pain being felt/experienced in an area away from the actual source of the pain.

Regional Anesthesia - method where the area of the body that would feel pain is anesthetized or deadened allowing the patient to be awake during the surgical procedure.

Residency Training - five or more years of on-the-job training after completion of medical school.

Resection - surgical removal of part or all of bone, organ, tissue or structure.

Revision surgery - surgery necessary when a previous surgical procedure fails. This can be done on total joint procedures or on spine surgical procedures, where instrumentation is used.

Spinal Anesthesia - type of regional anesthesia where anesthesia medication is injected to an area just outside the spine. Also known as epidural

Surgeon - a physician who treats illness or injury by opening the body.

Synovectomy - the surgical removal of the lining (synovium) that surrounds a joint.

Total joint replacement – see arthroplasty.

Trauma Surgery - specialty of medicine that treats injuries caused by an accident or impact, e.g. motor vehicle collisions, gun shots or stabbings, falls, crush injuries.

Tumescent Anesthesia - type of anesthesia that is diluted into a liquid and placed into the area where the surgery is to be performed.

Ultrasound - diagnostic test where high frequency sound waves used to produce an image of the area being scanned.

Varicose Veins - the swelling and enlargement of blood vessels.

Vascular Surgery - specialty of medicine that deals with treating blood vessels of the body.

Vertebroplasty - surgical procedure in which bone cement is injected into a cracked or damaged vertebra to stabilize the fracture

Weight Loss Surgery - surgical procedures also known as bariatric surgery, designed to help individuals lose weight.

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Posture and Neck Pain

Chronic neck pain is a miserable experience. Although some cases of neck pain are caused by an injury, many are simply due to poor posture. Poor posture stresses the muscles of the neck and can cause muscle spasms, stiffness and pain. Over time, the stresses of poor posture on the neck can cause degenerative diseases to develop in the discs and bones of the neck. Forward head A very commonly seen posture that puts a lot of strain on the neck is the forward head. The individual habitually thrusts the head forward, carrying it out in front of the shoulders. In this position, the weight of the head is constantly pulling on the spine and the shoulders. Sitting for hours hunched over a desk or a computer is a common cause of forward head. Many people with this habitual forward head carriage suffer from sore shoulders as well as a sore neck. Over time, the vertebrae at the base of the neck (C5 and C6) can develop painful degenerative conditions due to the constant weight of the head pulling on them in the forward head posture. Correct posture A correct posture is one that keeps the spine in alignment. Some people call it a neutral or balanced posture. One exercise to encourage a neutral posture is to focus on opening the chest wide as you try to squeeze your shoulder blades together. Once your chest is open, bring your head into alignment. Think of a string pulling up the top of your head and lengthening the neck. When you do this, your chin will tuck in and your head will naturally shift into proper alignment with your spine. Do the open chest/ string exercise multiple times a day. Other exercises to build better posture are head nods and chin tucks. To do a head nod, slowly nod your head slightly up and down without moving your neck. To do chin tucks, tip your nose down toward the ground and move the top of your head backwards. Repeat head nods and chin tucks several times a day. These exercises strengthen the muscles on the front of the neck. Individuals with habitual forward head posture usually have very weak muscles in the front of the neck. If you've worked hard at correcting your posture and you are still suffering from neck pain, why not give us a call?


Note: The information on this Web site is provided as general health guidelines and may not be applicable to your particular health condition. Your individual health status and any required medical treatments can only be properly addressed by a professional healthcare provider of your choice. Remember: There is no adequate substitution for a personal consultation with your physician. Neither BPF Specialty Hospital, or any of their affiliates, nor any contributors shall have any liability for the content or any errors or omissions in the information provided by this Web site.